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Carmine Persico mugshot

Carmine John Persico, Jr. (August 8, 1933 – March 7, 2019) also known as "Junior", "The Snake" and "Immortal", was the long-time boss of the Colombo crime family from 1973. He was serving a sentence of 139 years in federal prison from 1987 until his death on March 7, 2019. Persico orchestrated an extremely ruthless and brutal reign, he started one of the bloodiest gangland wars in American history, a violent war between two rival factions in the Colombo crime family, Persico's faction and Vittorio Orena's faction, the war between the two factions led to as many as 130 murders, and dozens of innocent people either injured or killed in the crossfire. Persico ruled thru extreme violence, intimidation and fear, and he ordered the deaths of more than 200 people during his reign of terror.

Carmine John Persico, Jr. was born on August 8, 1933, in Brooklyn, New York, to Carmine John Persico, Sr. and Assunta "Susan" Plantamura. Carmine Persico, Jr. is the brother of Colombo capos Theodore Persico and Alphonse "Allie Boy" Persico (died in 1989). Carmine Persico's sons are Colombo former Acting Boss Alphonse Persico, commonly known as "little Allie Boy" (named after Carmine's beloved older brother) and Colombo associate Michael Persico. Carmine Persico Jr.'s nephew is Theodore Persico Jr.

Carmine Persico, Sr. was a legal stenographer for several law firms in Manhattan and provided his family with a comfortable living. The Persico family lived in the Carroll Gardens and Red Hook sections of Brooklyn. Carmine Persico Jr. dropped out of high school at age 16. By then, he was a leader of the Garfield Boys, a Brooklyn street gang. However, one contemporary source says that in 1950 the 16 year-old Persico actually belonged to the South Brooklyn Boys, a successor gang to the Garfield Boys. A fellow gang member being fellow Colombo Antony 'Scrappy' Scarpati. In March 1951, the 17 year-old Persico was arrested on charges of fatally beating another youth in Prospect Park in Brooklyn. However, all charges were eventually dropped. Allie Boy Persico was supposed to have come forward and taken the rap for another Carmine Persico homicide, drawing a very lengthy sentence so Junior wasn't sent down.

In the early 1950s, Profaci crime family capo Frank Abbatemarco 'Frankie Shots' recruited Carmine Persico Jr. into the crime family. At first, Persico did bookmaking and loansharking, then moved into burglaries and hijackings. During this decade, Persico was arrested over 12 times, but spent only a few days in jail. Persico also started working with Joey Gallo and his brothers Albert and Lawrence.

Anastasia Murder

In 1957, Persico allegedly participated in the murder of Albert Anastasia, the former leader of Murder Inc. and the boss of what was then the Anastasia crime family. Anastasia's underboss Carlo Gambino wanted control of the family and conspired with his allies, Genovese crime family boss Vito Genovese and Profaci boss Joe Profaci to kill Anastasia. Profaci allegedly gave the job to Persico and the Gallo brothers.

On October 25, 1957, Albert Anastasia entered the barber shop of the Park Sheraton Hotel (now the Park Central Hotel) in Midtown Manhattan. As Anastasia relaxed in the barber chair, two men – scarves covering their faces – rushed in, shoved the barber out of the way, and fired at Anastasia. After the first volley of bullets, Anastasia allegedly lunged at his killers. However, the stunned Anastasia had actually attacked the gunmen's reflections in the wall mirror of the barber shop. The gunmen continued firing and finally killed Anastasia.

No one was ever charged in the Anastasia killing, and there is an alternative theory that gunmen from the Patriarca crime family of New England performed the hit. In 1984, Persico allegedly boasted of the crime to a relative:

"The FBI knows who really hurt Anastasia. But that fag Crazy Joe Gallo took the credit."

Joseph Profaci and Magliocco Regimes

The Gallo Faction

By the late 1950s, Persico and the Gallos were becoming increasingly dissatisfied with Profaci's leadership. Profaci demanded high tribute payments from the family members and was viewed by them as a wealthy autocrat. The first Colombo war started on November 4, 1959, when Profaci's gunmen murdered Frank Abbatemarco on a Brooklyn street. Abbatemarco had stopped paying tribute to Profaci earlier that year with the support of the Gallo faction. It is speculated that Gambino boss Carlo Gambino and Lucchese crime family Gaetano Lucchese were encouraging the Gallos to challenge Profaci, their enemy. When Profaci took Abbatemarco's lucrative rackets away from the Gallos, the warfare began.

In February 1961, the Gallo faction kidnapped Profaci underboss Joseph Magliocco and capo Joseph Colombo. After several weeks of negotiation, the Gallos reached an agreement with Profaci and released the two captives. However, six months later, Profaci reneged on the deal and war broke out again between the Gallos and the Profaci family.

Changing Sides

In August 1961, Persico betrayed the Gallo faction (after lengthy talks with Frank 'the prime minister' Costello )and attempted to murder Larry Gallo. Profaci had secretely contacted Persico and offered him some very lucrative rackets if he would switch sides. Persico agreed. On August 12, 1961, Larry Gallo met with Persico at the Sahara Lounge in Brooklyn to discuss war strategy. When Gallo arrived, Persico's men attacked him and Persico started strangling Gallo with a garrote. However, a passing policeman witnessed the attack, forcing Persico and his men to flee. Persico supposedly gained the nickname "Snake" from this act of treachery. Persico was indicted later that year for attempted murder of Gallo, but the charges were dropped when Gallo refused to testify. (This event later inspired the scene in Godfather Part II where Corleone capo Frank Pentangeli is garotted and almost murdered in a brooklyn bar but a policeman interrupts the murder attempt.)

On June 6, 1962, Joe Profaci died of cancer and Joseph Magliocco became the new family boss. However, the war with the Gallo faction continued.

In early 1963, the Gallos bombed Persico's car, but he escaped with minor injuries. On May 19, 1963, Gallo gunmen ambushed Persico in the Gowanus section of Brooklyn. A panel truck pulled alongside Persico's new car and two men shot Persico in the face, hand, and shoulder. Persico reportedly spat out the bullet that had entered his face.

Soon after the May attempt on his life, Persico was imprisoned on extortion charges. By the fall of 1963, with Joey Gallo in prison also, the shooting war had ended with Magliocco the winner.

In late 1963, after an unsuccessful attempt to take over the Mafia Commission, Joseph Magliocco was forced out of the family. He was replaced by Joseph Colombo, who had alerted the Commission to Magliocco's plot. The Profaci crime family was now the Colombo crime family. In turn, Colombo rewarded the imprisoned Persico by naming him a capo.

Colombo Capo

Carmine "The Snake" Persico

After becoming Caporegime, Persico was constantly on the streets. Government witness Joe Valachi later testified that "Whenever business on the streets, Persico was always there". Persico was involved in labor racketeering, extortion, loansharking, illegal gambling, hijacking and especially murder for hire. By the later 1960s, Persico's crew was one of the most profitable crews in the Colombo family.

In 1968, Persico was convicted on federal hijacking charges after five separate trials dating back to 1960. On January 27, 1971, Persico was finally sent to prison on these charges, where he would spend eight years. The trial was noted for the only appearance of former mobster Joseph Valachi as a prosecution witness.

Colombo and Gallo Shootings

In February 1971, Joey Gallo was released from prison. On June 28, 1971, Colombo was shot and severely wounded at the second annual Italian-American Civil Rights League rally in Manhattan. The shooter, Jerome Johnson, was immediately shot to death by Colombo's bodyguards. Colombo survived in a paralyzed state until his death on May 22, 1978. Police concluded that Johnson was the sole shooter. Law enforcement and the Mafia assumed Gallo had organized the hit; Gallo had built ties with African-American gangsters and, upon his release, threatened to start another gang war unless he received $100,000 compensation.

On November 11, 1971, Persico went on trial in state court on 37 counts of usuary, coercion, extortion, and conspiracy, all stemming from a loansharking operation out of a Manhattan fur shop. On December 8, 1971, a jury acquitted Persico of all charges; all 12 prosecutions witnesses said they could not identify Persico.

After the Colombo shooting, underboss Joseph Yacovelli assumed the role of acting boss. However, the Persico family essentially took control of the Colombos on the then-imprisoned Carmine's behalf, with Carmine himself coordinating the suppression of the Gallos. On April 7, 1972, Gallo was shot and killed by Persico gunmen as he was celebrating his birthday at Umberto's Clam House in Little Italy, Manhattan.

Persico Regime & Prison

In 1973, Persico was imprisoned on hijacking and loansharking charges. Persico's imprisonment coincided with the release of his brother Alphonse from 17 years in prison. Carmine Persico designated his brother Alphonse acting boss with support from Gennaro Langella and Carmine's brother Theodore Persico. In 1979, Carmine Persico was released from federal prison.

On August 11, 1981, Carmine Persico pleaded guilty to a conspiracy charge of attempting to bribe an Internal Revenue Service special agent from 1977 through 1978 while in federal custody. The evidence included a recording of Persico offering the agent $250,000 in exchange for getting Persico an early release from prison. On November 9, 1981, Persico was sentenced to five years in federal prison.

Federal fugitive

On October 14, 1984, Carmine Persico and the rest of the Colombo family leadership were indicted on multiple racketeering charges as part of the "Colombo Trial". After the indictment was published, Persico went into hiding. On October 26, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) began a national manhunt for Persico. On January 31, 1985 the FBI named Persico as the 390th Fugitive to be added to the Ten Most Wanted list. Persico hid in the Wantagh, New York home of his cousin, mob associate Fred DeChristopher, who ultimately opted to turn him in and turn state's evidence. Persico was arrested on February 15, 1985.

On July 2, 1985, Persico was indicted, along with other New York Cosa Nostra leaders, on a second set of racketeering charges as part of the "Commission Trial". The aim of prosecutors was to strike at all the crime families at once using their involvement in the Mafia Commission. According to Colombo hitman and FBI informant Gregory Scarpa, in late 1986 Persico and Gambino crime family boss John Gotti backed a plan to kill the leading prosecutor and future New York City mayor Rudolph Giuliani, but it was rejected by the rest of the Commission.

Colombo and Commission trials, Life imprisonment

At the start of the Commission trial, Persico decided to serve as his own lawyer (he was using an attorney for the Colombo trial). Persico believed that his history of convictions gave him sufficient experience to defend himself. His co-defendants vehemently disagreed with this decision, and the judge warned Persico that he would be waiving "incompetent counsel" as the grounds for an appeal.

Persico received a help counsel of lawyers to help guide him when the prosecutors asked him questions. Persico tried to project a friendly image to the jury and urged them to put aside any preconceptions about "the Mafia" or "Cosa Nostra", Many believe that Persico inadvertently sabotaged his own defense by acknowledging criminal activities during his cross-examinations of prosecution witnesses.

On June 14, 1986, Persico was convicted of racketeering in the Colombo Trial. On November 17, 1986, Persico was sentenced to 39 years in prison in the Colombo Trial. On November 19, 1986, Persico and the other Commission Trial defendants were convicted of all charges. On January 13, 1987, a judge sentenced Persico to 100 years in prison as part of the Commission Trial, to run consecutively with his 39-year sentence in the Colombo trial. New York Times organized-crime writer Selwyn Raab thought the Colombos were the most damaged by the trial, even though most of the top leaders of New York's Mafia families were sent to prison (the Lucchese family, for instance, lost its entire hierarchy). In his book, Five Families, Raab noted that Persico was only 53 years old at the time of the Commission Trial, and was far and away the youngest crime family boss in New York though he'd already led the family for 14 years. By comparison, the other bosses were in their seventies, and would have likely passed the reins to men of Persico's generation even without the trial intervening. Persico was sent to United States Penitentiary, Marion Federal Penitentiary near Marion, Illinois to serve both the Colombo Trial and Commission Trial sentences. Since parole had been abolished in the federal prison system in 1984, the sentence all but assured that Persico will die in prison.


In June 1987, Carmine Persico ordered a murder that would ultimately result in over 30 murders. He ordered acting boss Joel Cacace to kill U.S. Attorney William Aronwald, a federal prosecutor who had allegedly been disrespectful to the La Cosa Nostra and also trying to prosecute several high-ranking members of the Colombo crime family, including Persico on several counts of murder, extortion and racketeering charges. Cacace delegated the job to to seven Colombo family hitmen who mistakenly killed the target's father, George Aronwald who had a striking resemblance to his son. Cacace then recruited another hit squad of twelve assassins to kill the first hit squad. After those murders were accomplished, Cacace recruited a third hit squad of eleven hitmen to kill the second hit squad, and then just to be very careful and sure they could cover all tracks and make sure that nothing could come back to them, Persico and Cacace recruited a fourth hit squad of sixteen hitmen, and ordered the deaths of the third hit squad which was eleven hitmen to cover his tracks and remove all connections of himself to the murders. In 2004, Cacace would plead guilty to the Aronwald murder. No charges were filed against Carmine., and after the second hit squad was murdered Cacace and Persico was able to successfully cover their tracks and eliminate all loose ends.

Brooklyn rivalry

In 1988, soon after his final imprisonment, Carmine Persico dissolved the three-man ruling panel that was running the family and designated Vittorio Orena, a loyal capo and distant cousin from Brooklyn, as the temporary acting boss. As he made it clear to the family, Orena would resign as acting boss when Carmine's son Alphonse Persico was released from prison.

In 1990, the government transferred Carmine Persico to what was then the United States Penitentiary, Lompoc, in Lompoc, California. While at Lompoc, Persico established an Italian Cultural Club for the inmates. He socialized with people such as Patriarca crime family consigliere Joseph Russo and former DeMeo crew member Anthony Senter and Drug Trafficker Mark Reiter. Persico formed the "Lompoc Four", a band in which Russo played guitar, Persico played Drums, Reiter and Senter sang and Persico played drums.

Carmine Persico on drums, with Joseph Russo on guitar, and Anthony Senter (Right) and Mark Reiter (Left) singing.

By 1991, Vittorio Orena had became disgruntled with the current leadership scheme. Orena was tired of the constant stream of orders that he received from Persico in prison. He also resented the idea of eventually surrendering his control to Alphonse Persico. Gambino crime family boss John Gotti encouraged Orena's rebellion, hoping to depose one of his enemies, Carmine Persico, from the Mafia Commission. Gotti went so far as to label Persico a "rat", the worst possible accusation for a Cosa Nostra figure.

In the spring of 1991, Vittorio Orena made his move. He requested that consigliere Carmine Sessa quietly poll all the Colombo capos as to who they wanted as boss. However, Sessa did not poll the capos, but instead told Carmine Persico about Orena's plot. Persico then allegedly ordered Sessa to recruit a hit squad to kill Orena and all of his loyalists.

On June 20, 1991, a ten-man heavily-armed hit squad led by Sessa two black vans parked on the street close to Orena's home on Long Island and waited for Orena to come home. As he was driving down the street, Orena recognized the many men with shotguns and machine guns in the car and quickly sped away. For the next several months, the Persico and Orena factions engaged in peace negotiations brokered by the Mafia Commission. Despite Carmine Persico's claim as the legitimate boss, the Commission refused to take sides in the Colombo Conflict and ordered a peace treaty between them.

Third Colombo war

On November 18, 1991, the Third Colombo War started when Orena lieutenant William Cutolo sent a 4-man hit squad with uzi submachine guns to try and kill Persico's chief enforcer and top hitman, Gregory Scarpa, on a Brooklyn Street. By the end of 1991, the two Colombo factions had traded many successful murders and murder attempts, which led to dozens of innocent people getting hurt or killed in the crossfire. Responding to public outrage over the carnage, law enforcement threw resources into prosecuting the Colombo mobsters, resulting in 68 indictments, 50 convictions and five mobsters turning states evidence.

On January 7th 1992 Orena soldier Nicholas Grancio was murdered by a Persico hit squad by in his Toyota Landcruiser in Gravesend, Brooklyn, it gathered a lot of attention from the media. Grancio was shot by machine guns over 50 times in the head, neck, arms, legs and body. It was one of the most shocking murders of the Colombo war.

In December 1992, Vittorio Orena was convicted of racketeering and murder and was sentenced to life in prison, dissolving his belligerent faction and leaving the Persicos in control again.

Changing family structure

With the end of the war with Orena, Persico had to set up another ruling structure for the family. Since Alphonse Persico was facing prosecution on new charges, Carmine Persico installed a ruling committee. This committee consisted of brother Theodore Persico, mobster Joseph Baudanza and Joseph Tomasello. In 1994, when Andrew Russo was released from prison, Persico disbanded the committee and designated Russo as acting boss. In 1996, Russo went to prison and Persico replaced him with his son Alphonse. In early 1999, with Alphonse in legal trouble, Persico made Joel Cacace the acting boss.

However, later in 1999, either Carmine or Alphonse Persico ordered Cutolo's murder. The recently released Alphonse Persico was facing new federal charges that threatened to send him back to prison, and they were worried about William Cutolo seizing control of the family. On May 26, 1999, Alphonse Persico ordered Cutolo to meet him at a Brooklyn Park. Cutolo was then taken to a mob associate's apartment, murdered, and his body buried in Long Island. Police would not recover the body until November 2008.

Life sentence for Alphonse Persico

On December 20, 2001, Alphonse Persico pleaded guilty to the loansharking charges, accepted a 13-year prison sentence, and agreed to forfeit $1 million. On October 14, 2004, Alphonse Persico was indicted on federal racketeering charges, including conspiring to murder Cutolo and Joe Campanella. No charges were filed against Carmine Persico However, the Cutolo murder trial ended in a mistrial due to juror deadlock.

In 2004, with the conversion of Lompoc into a different correctional facility, the government transferred Carmine Persico to the Federal Correctional Complex, Butner, a medium correctional facility in North Carolina.

On December 28, 2007, in a second trial, Alphonse Persico and John DeRoss were convicted of Cutolo's murder. Like his father, Alphonse Persico was sentenced to life in prison.

Later years and death

In 2011, Carmine Persico was still the official boss of the Colombo crime family. His street boss at the time was Andrew Russo, his official underboss Persico's former rival, John Franzese, the acting underboss Benjamin Castellazzo and the consigliere Richard Fusco.

In March 2010, the Reuters News Agency reported that Carmine Persico had been socializing in prison with convicted swindler Bernard Madoff. The New York Post further reported that Persico loves to play pinochle and bocce with other mobsters and regale them with stories from his past.

In September 2015, Persico had been incarcerated at Federal Correctional Complex, Butner in Butner, North Carolina, with a projected release date of March 20, 2050—when he would have been 117 years old. Raab wrote in Five Families that Persico's attempts to protect his own position and ensure that his son succeeded him nearly destroyed the Colombo crime family. By Raab's estimate, Persico's "deceitful schemes" led directly to 60 of his wiseguys' and associates' being sent to prison, as well as 220 deaths.

On March 7, 2019, Carmine Persico died at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina.

Though he was not given a well-publicized sendoff typical of a boss, this did not prevent Carmine Persico's funeral from attracting the attention of law enforcement. On a wiretap, two accused members of the Colombos, Joseph Amato Sr. and Thomas Scorcia, were recorded discussing Persico's funeral. Prosecutors introduced it as evidence for their Detention Memo requesting pre-trial imprisonment:

Scorcia commented, “I ordered a charcoal grey suit, something new. I don’t want to be like a stumble bum like everybody else. I represent you. This way we’ll be nice and sharp.”

In that same call, Scorcia also jokingly asked Amato, after Amato suggested that Scorcia and [co-defendent Daniel] Capaldo drive the one-time boss’s body back to New York, “Do I move up in the ranks.”[sic] [1]

Carmine Persico is interred at a family-owned mausoleum at Brooklyn's Green-Wood Cemetery, alongside his namesake father, mother Susan Persico, and his brothers Alphonse "Allie Boy" Persico and Theodore Persico.[2]