Juliano is the brother of Gambino mobster Richard Juliano and the uncle or father of Richard J. Juliano. His relative Joseph Juliano was active during Prohibition, involved in hijacking bootleg alcohol in Passaic, New Jersey. Following Ruggerio Boiardo's release from New Jersey State Prison, he was found shot on Harvey Street in Newark, New Jersey. He survived but was not allowed to enter Newark's First Ward.
Although it has not been confirmed when Juliano was inducted or promoted to the rank of Capo in the Gambino crime family, the US law enforcement began a federal investigation of Juliano in the late 1990s, apparently recognizing him as a capo, commanding his own crew in the Brooklyn faction of the family. Federal authorities also began the basics for a possible indictment, wherein illegal gambling, loansharking, extortion, fraud and wire fraud were the possible charges. He was eventually convicted and was released from federal prison on December 13, 2001.
On January 29, 2003, Juliano was indicted in Albany, New York, on charges of managing and operating a multi-million-dollar illegal gambling racket, based in over 30 different locations in New York City. The 92 charges against the Juliano crew included loansharking, illegal gambling, conspiracy to oversee illegal gambling, fraud, wire fraud and tax evasion. Juliano employed over 90 "runners", including several retired men with thick glasses, noticeable limps and walking canes, to collect on the illegal bets.
On April 9, 2003, Juliano pleaded guilty to one count of attempted enterprise corruption. On October 10, 2003, he was sentenced to two to four years in state prison. The court also ordered Juliano to forfeit $550,000 in gambling proceeds to the state and pay $37,000 in back taxes.
In 2004 Juliano received a sentence of one and a half to three years for the running of a sports betting and numbers operation that collected more than $3 million in bets annually. He was eventually sentenced to four years on the 2003 charges. His brother Richard was sentenced to two years in prison in a related gambling case.
In 2013, it was reported that Gambino leaders installed Juliano to a “Ruling Panel”, which would run the Gambino family’s rackets on the streets on behalf of family bosses.
In 2016, former New York City cop Micheal Rizzi, the husband of Juliano's niece, Jill Juliano, was a arrested for running a prostitution ring catering to some of the city's wealthiest men.
In September 2017, John S. Riccobono, of Manalapan, New Jersey, had his Longshoreman Registration as a Checker revoked by the Waterfront Commission of New York Harbor following a hearing before an Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) for associating with members of the Gambino crime family.
The evidence at the hearing demonstrated that Riccobono associated with high-ranking members of the Gambino Crime Family, including Joseph Juliano. It also showed that Riccobono frequently socialized with him and others, including attending Gambino Crew Dinners in Brooklyn and Staten Island in 2010, and invited many of them to his daughter’s christening in 2014. While registered as a Checker, Riccobono even visited Juliano in prison while he was incarcerated.