Samuel A. Carlisi (December 15, 1914 – January 2, 1997) aka "Black Sam" and "Sam Wings", was a Chicago mobster and onetime boss of the Chicago Outfit Mafia organization.
Carlisi started his criminal career with the Outfit as a driver for mobster Joseph Aiuppa when he was boss of the Cicero, Illinois crew. He is the uncle to Chicago Outfit mobsters Dominic DiMaggi and Nicholas DiMaggi. When Aiuppa was convicted in 1986 for the skimming of the Las Vegas casinos, Carlisi served as his replacement and as a front man. Carlisi earned his nickname "Wings" because he often flew around the country as a mob courier during the 1970s. When Joseph Ferriola became the boss of the Outfit, Carlisi served as his underboss. This followed the murders of Michael and Tony Spilotro, in which Carlisi had supposedly been involved. Carlisi was partners with Ernest "Rocco" Infelise in JEP Truck Leasing amongst other business holdings.
After Ferriola was diagnosed with cancer, he assigned the day-to-day supervision of the Outfit to Carlisi. After Ferriola died, Carlisi became the new boss. In March 1996, Carlisi was convicted of mob racketeering, loansharking, and arson in connection with an illegal gambling business in the Chicago area and the West suburbs and was sentenced to 13 years in prison. Convicted with Carlisi were his chauffeur James Marcello, Anthony Zizzo, Anthony Chiaramonti, and Gill Valerio.
On January 2, 1997, Carlisi died with fluid in his lungs as he was being dragged out by guards in a prison unit to a waiting golf cart. This caused him to die of a heart attack while in prison.